Railway embedded software, SIL2, IEC61508, EN50128

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Cecube technology consulting


Software has been employed by the railways industry, and in traction engineering in particular, since mainframes with paper tape and card readers became commonplace in the late 1960's. At that time Universities and large organizations monopolised the scare computing resources. While companies were writing their own COBOL business programs, academics and students applied the scientific based FORTRAN language to research problems. This provided the opportunity to replace restrictive analogue simulations with digital computer simulations of greater complexity. Circuit analysis and behavioural modelling on a large scale was possible - DC motors, chopper circuits, thyristors. Simulation first supported theoretical analysis, and then extended it beyond what was analytically feasible.

Coding was largely a process of trial and error, often with poor or no structure. However, undoubted excitement and motivation was born on the vision of ever increasing computing capacity, giving rise to complex system models. The globally renowned railway network simulator from the Traction Systems Group at Birmingham University evolved at this time. This allowed new rail systems to be designed optimally, while existing systems could be evaluated prior to renewals. Headway and stopping distance adjustments allowed train scheduling optimisation. Over years sets of traction specific sub-systems models have been developed, know as Cecube Components, that allow sophisticated models to be quickly assembled using C, VB or FORTRAN. These reusable code modules are structured with defined i/o, allowing high order systems to be divided into low order sub-systems.

An example of a relatively modern bespoke braking system model for a hypothetical EMU can be downloaded for evaluation (suitable for any Windows OS).

Download *** Dynamic Brake Optimizer Model *** (425KB)

To execute, unzip contents of download into an empty folder and double click on the file Brake_Simulator.exe. Instructions to run the simulator can be found in the Read_Me file.


Increasing use of railway embedded software is evident in recent traction and signalling equipment builds. Embedded software enables extra complexity and functionality to be built in without significant hardware cost. Functions previously implemented in analogue electronics are now in firmware on processor based digital electronic modules. However, software development is neither quick or cheap. Safety-critical components of the code demand rigorous conformity to an appropriate software safety integrity level (SSIL). The overriding European standard is IEC61508 (7 parts) - Functional safety of Electrical / Electronic / Programmable Electronic safety-related Systems. Software is dealt with in part 3, however, EN50128 (Software for Railway Control and Protection Systems) is the CENELEC sector specific standard dealing with software. EN50128 states that it took guidance from earlier work included within IEC61508, so there is considerable similarity between EN50128 and IEC61508, Part 3. In turn, Part 3 of IEC61508 makes frequent reference to the general requirements in Part 1 of that standard.

One important difference between the standards is that EN50128 explicitly describes SSIL, whereas IEC61508 defines safety integrity levels (SIL) for the equipments under control, thus encompassing both hardware and software. EN50128 is therefore software specific unlike IEC61508, but this is a predictable result of railway sector interpretation of the standard. EN50128 also identifies requirements, life cycle issues and documentation. It gives detailed descriptions of objectives, input documents, output documents and software requirements specification, as well as architecture, design and implementation, verification and testing. It covers software/hardware integration, software validation, quality assurance and maintenance. It also addresses the concept of software configured by application data (e.g. "table driven software"). In Annex A, which is normative, it provides criteria for the selection of techniques and measures, depending on the SSIL. In Annex B, which is informative, it gives descriptions of the techniques identified in Annex A.

Unfortunately rolling stock fleets equipped with embedded software built prior to the inception of these standards (~1999) will be in service for many years yet. However, aspects of current practice would have been incorporated into the software quality assurance measures of legacy system. Unfortunately the CENELEC standards were written for and apply to the development of new systems. For any established system the standards expect that a full railway safety case already exists. Any subsequent upgrade of an established system is covered by the "modification or retrofit" sections of the standard. The terminology used demands an "appropriate" update of the safety case.

In cases where a system is manufactured and commissioned prior to the adoption of the standards then there is no railway safety case to update. In this situation it is not possible to follow the life cycle models of IEC61508 and EN50128, and it becomes necessary to build an "appropriate" safety case. The requirements of the appropriate safety case will be determined by the extent of the upgrade or modification and that left unchanged. The upgrade implementation phases should follow the principles given in the standards, even where this requires the manufacturer adopting further recognized procedures demanded by the standards. To create an appropriate safety case, evidence of HR (highly recommended) procedures identified by EN50128 is necessary. These are submitted to an approval process specifically instigated to assess the upgrade of legacy systems. The HR procedures deemed necessary depends on the SSIL required. However, railway safety cases on new rolling stock traction software are accepted at level 2 (SIL2) with a strong supporting safety case, whereas software for a signalling system would be expected to achieve SIL4. For retrofit traction systems even level 1 may be appropriate in some cases, where a rigorous supporting fault tree analysis demonstrates that the top-level failure rate of the equipment is acceptable.

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