1.    'Algebraic Optimisation of Regenerative Railway Systems for Minimum Run Time' B.J. Cardwell, December 2005.

Regenerative Brake - Part 1

2.    'Optimisation of Regenerative Rapid Transit Systems to Determine Run Time versus Energy Loss Relationship' B.J. Cardwell, January 2007.

Regenerative Brake - Part 2

3.    'Optimisation of Regenerative Rapid Transit Systems to Determine Energy Comsumed versus Time Margin' B.J. Cardwell, March 2007.

Regenerative Brake - Part 3

4.    'Optimal Energy Consumption and Run Time with Losses introduced into the Regenerative System Equations' B.J. Cardwell, April 2007.

Regenerative Brake - Part 4

4.    'Optimum Traction and Regenerative Braking Profile Conclusions' B.J. Cardwell, June 2007.

Regenerative Brake - Part 5


1.    'Simulation Study of Thermally Initiated Rail Defects' D. Scott, D.I. Fletcher, B.J. Cardwell. Submission to Proc IMechE Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, April 2012.

      The final version is published in Proc. IMechE, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit Vol 228:2, Feb 2014, by SAGE Publications Ltd, all rights reserved. DOI:10.1177/0954409712465697

Identifying a cause of Squat Type (STUD) defects (pdf 3.12M)

2.    'Wellington Network Track Circuit Immunisation' B.J. Cardwell, A. Hines, R. Twyford, J. Skilton, CORE 2010, International Conference on Railway Engineering, Wellington NZ, September 2010.

50Hz Track Relay Compatibility (pdf 463k)

3.    'The Adoption of New Concepts in AC Traction Interference Control' B.J. Cardwell, G. Crawshaw, IEE International Conference on Developments in Mass Transit Systems, London, April 1998.

EPWM Description (pdf 209k)

4.    'Ensuring Inverter Drives do not present a Signalling Safety Hazard - The Solution' B.J. Cardwell, IEE Colloquium, P2 group, London, October 1992.

Inverters & Signalling (pdf 50k)

5.    'Simulation - Control and Power Electronic Systems' B.J. Cardwell, 2005 extended and updated version from IEE Traction Control System Course, University of Birmingham.

Traction Simulation Tutorial (html)

6.    'The Application of Variable Speed Induction Motor Drives in Industry' IEE Lecture by B.J. Cardwell, March 1990, IEE East Midland Centre.

Significant Papers on Induction Motor Drives (html)

7.    'Three Phase Drives for no. 1 Prototype Train' G. Crawshaw, B.J. Cardwell, IEE Colloquium, P2 group, March 1990.

3 Phase Prototype (pdf 59k)

8.    'The Contribution of Computer Simulation Methods to Traction Propulsion Development' B.J. Cardwell, I.K.S. Johnson, G.W. Baines, 2006 extended and updated version from 'Main Line Railway Electrification' IEE, York.

Traction Simulation (html)

9.    'A Modular Design of Asynchronous Traction Drive' G. Crawshaw, C.J. Yarrow, B.J. Cardwell, 'Main Line Railway Electrification' IEE, York, September 1989.

Modular IM Drive (pdf 75k)

10.    'Torque Control of AC Induction Motor Traction Drives' B.J. Cardwell, 2005 extended and updated version from 'Electric Railway Systems for a New Century' IEE, London.

Torque Control (html)

11.    'Response Improvements in Industrial d.c. Drives derived from Optimal Analysis' B.J. Cardwell and C.J. Goodman, Proc. IEE, vol 131, Pt B, May 1984.

Industrial DC Drives (pdf 610k)

12.    'Optimal Trajectories in DC Machine Speed Controls' C.J. Goodman and B.J. Cardwell, Fifteenth UPEC, Leicester University, March 1980.

'CECUBE COMPONENTS' - an extensive catalogue of bespoke simulation components for traction applications.

Cecube Components Catalogue (pdf 79k)

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