SIMULATION TUTORIAL

Traction Control and Power Electronic Systems

 

Dr. B J Cardwell

INTRODUCTION

 

The relentless advance of technology is producing ever more complex systems, whose interactions at a system level are becoming harder to predict either by analysis or past experience. As a result many projects in all sectors of engineering are coming to fruition with unexpected defects and performance failures, which are frequently proving very time consuming and expensive to solve, invariably at a critical point in a contract program. A recently published survey funded by the DTI claims as much as £300 million is wasted by British industry by the inadequate use of simulation technology. Of more than 400 UK sites surveyed, fewer than 10% were making use of simulation techniques to identify problems. Those that were reported indicated a payback time in weeks or months rather than years, with significant cost savings.

 

The rail industry has, by and large, fallen into the same malaise as the rest of the engineering world, with only a few pockets of isolated activity during the past two decades. Traditionally large centrally based mainframe computing systems have provided the resources for simulation in most organisations, firstly for motor design programs, and then train performance programs, which evolved as a blend of theoretical and empirical methods. This combination of theoreti­cal and experimental rules was programmed, usually in a rather haphazard manner, bottom up and allowed to grow indefinitely. Today modern computing tools such as databases and expert shells might be used instead. The result was code that inevitably was very hard to manage, but in many cases despite incoherent so called spaghetti programs, successful design tools were produced.

 

The realisation of these benefits slowly permeated engineering departments in both industry and academia, and by the early 1970's students were being encouraged to combine theoretical, simulation and practical approaches to problem solving. It was around this time that academics were first devoting efforts to create a universal approach to simulation, thus creating a new discipline in its own right. The intention was to provide the framework for simulation across the whole sphere of science and engineering. The ‘standard’ to emerge was defined by Strauss [1] for the modelling of continuous time systems, and its concepts were widely accepted. Time domain based continuous system simulation language (CSSL) as it became known was adopted by many organisations with engineering interests and variants both commercial and non-commercial appeared.

 

Of the commercial versions a few have attained recognised status,[2] such as ACSL and CSMP. The Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL) is aimed at the engineer who analyses continuous systems described by linear or non-linear time dependent differential equations or transfer functions. This involves extracting system matrix or state space forms from input data, and proceeding to perform a numerical time integration procedure. This is a classical approach to simulation that in its most elementary form could be considered analogous to the nearly extinct analogue computer. State space will be discussed in more detail later in this paper, but first it is appropriate to discuss other forms of digital simulation applicable to traction power electronic systems.


CIRCUIT BASED SIMULATION

 

Most practising power electronic engineers are primarily concerned with voltage and cur­rent waveforms in non-ideal switching circuits, generally falling under a rectifier, converter, chopper, or inverter classification. As a result of waveform analysis suitable com­ponent ratings can be specified and a thermal performance determined given an appropriate duty cycle. Example of typical circuit topology is shown in fig. 1 [3]. Associated with each switching device is a snubber circuit to handle switch-on and switch-off of the power device. A switch-on snubber limits the rate of rise of current into a device ensuring that a low on-state volt drop is achieved b­fore reaching full current.  The switch-off snubber provides a short-term shunt for current as a device switches off, preventing excessive rate of change of voltage.

 

A simple snubbing arrangement is shown in fig. 2. In practice this is quite lossy with energy being dissipated in circuit resistance. Consequently, many attempts have been made to design regenerative or energy recovery type snubbers where snubber energy is returned to the supply in some measure. This becomes increasingly important at higher voltages and has given rise to many exotic circuits in an attempt to regain all the losses during snubbing, as the example in fig. 3 shows. At this level of complexity a design engineer needs help if he is to rightly judge the balance of system efficiency and thermal loss against other factors such as cost and reliability.

 

A time domain circuit simulator is the ideal tool in this instance. This is based on a mesh or network solution, requiring the problem to be specified as a set of nodes and branches. If the components were all passive and time independent, then by equating voltages across branches, and summing currents into nodes, a set of linear differential equations would be formed. Subsequent integra­tion then yields the desired voltage and current waveforms. The basic network analysis rules are:

 

        Σ vn = 0    loop equation

        Σ in = 0    node equation

 

This simple approach is not appropriate for the snubbing example considered above because it has non-linear elements (diodes) and switching power devices, which may require modelling as something more than ideal switches. The ability to handle piecewise linear and instantaneous switching discontinuities, often referred to as a discrete state events (DSE), increases the mathe­matical complexity considerably, and at this point use of computer simulation to solve the problem becomes mandatory.

 

A number of approaches may be taken depending on the method of handling the DSE. One is to adopt a linearised sampled data procedure [4] to determine a generalised model. This is useful for performing a control system analysis, but not for circuit simulation where causality is less clear. Indeed it may be argued that if a circuit has indistinct inputs or outputs (e.g. a supply rail), it is not causal in the same sense that a transfer function is. The consequence is two ex­tra problems to consider during numerical integration. Firstly, the event time has to be detected and secondly as a result accurate integration in the vicinity of the event has to be guaranteed. The detection of a DSE is an iterative process occurring within the numerical integra­tion, and if a large number of DSEs occur during a simulation run the computing time will increase significantly.

 


power electronic snubber circuits

The ability of a circuit simulation to perform state events efficiently and accurately is a good measure of quality. If writing a circuit simulation program for a specific task it is often pos­sible to take account of characteristics of the task. For example a dedicated program may be written on the assump­tion that the waveforms to be studied have transients much slower than the sample period, or that a threshold tolerance would in practice be wider than the error introduced by one sample period. This program may give perfectly acceptable results in this instance, but on a different problem where the assumptions would not hold, misleading waveforms would result. Rules for the development of circuit simulators are:

·                                Specify the important parameters of the proposed simulation

·                                Decide if special handling of DSEs is necessary

·                                Decide if existing component models are sufficiently accurate

·                                Choose suitable integration method (discussed further in a later section)

·                                Determine integration step length for this model

·                                Constantly validate model by reference to simpler problems, and/or by comparison with a known design

 

Given the spread of modern components from integrated circuits to FPGAs on the one hand, and voltage controlled capacitors to IGBTs on the other, it is not realistic to expect a hardware circuit designer to build his own circuit simulation. As a consequence computer based tools to fulfil this task have come to the fore. The oldest and most established of these is SPICE, a family of circuit simulators derived from original development at the University of California, Berkeley.[5] SPICE is an acronym for “Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis” developed from the early 1970's. The aims of the package at version 3f5, which is available for work­stations and PCs, are to:

·                                confirm circuit ideas before building

·                                experiment with existing designs

·                                simulate measurements of unobservable quantities

 

Such models are excellent at ac and dc analysis, transient and steady state. Analytic tools allow time or frequency responses to be plotted along with spectral analysis, noise and dis­tortion analysis. Also included is a limited capability to per­form feedback control analysis. However, this is done by modelling generalised transfer function block diagrams as equivalent circuits, which while feasible becomes very tedious if the transfer function is either high order or non-linear. For this reason circuit simulators should not be seen as effective tools for control systems development.

 

Various competitors to SPICE have appeared on the market during the past decade, although nearly all claim to have SPICE compatibility in terms of circuit definition, descrip­tion and component models. A very up market alternative is SABER with a sophisticated user interface for operation on workstations. SABER's features include component behavioural modelling where functional or mathematical representations may be used to relate points in a circuit. With such a simulator it is possible to input model templates in standard high level languages (FORTRAN, C and PASCAL) as well as its own C-like simulation language. This provides a means of generating traction specific models such as power circuits, motors, drive transmissions and circuit breakers that may incorporate standard library components. Hence, the generation of black box models defined by input/output signals, with many levels of hierarchy is possible. This is suited to the simulation of large systems such as a steady state model of a traction system. Much is made of the approximately linear increase in execution time of SABER with circuit size, compared to the exponential increase using a SPICE algorithm. This is because more advanced mathematical techniques may be deployed, including multi-rate integration, optimised DSE handling and sparse matrix transform methods. Despite all these innovations, circuit simulators are not yet exceptionally good at executing system studies, and are relatively slow compared to bespoke system simu­lation targeted at a specialised task.

 

By way of example of a problem well suited to circuit simulation consider a non-linear power transmission line. The model includes a 25kV single phase power supply pro­ducing a 50Hz fundamental and 2% of 3rd, 5th, 7th and 25th harmonics, the feeder substation transformer and a transmission line. In order to include skin and core loss effects of the transformer at harmonic frequencies, the resistance term of the transformer was rep­resented by a cubic frequency dependent expression. The transmission line was made up of π sections, and each π section has a linear resistance variation with frequency to represent the skin effect of the conductor. The resulting equivalent circuit model is shown in fig. 4 with an inductive load added for simplicity.

The simulated results of the source and load waveforms are shown in figures 5 and 6. It can be seen the small 25th harmonic in the supply voltage is magnified at the load. This is the result of transmission line resonance, which in a weak power system can exist at the locomo­tive transformer primary ter­minals. This type of model can clearly be of use in designing and specifying both transformer and harmonic filters required in an electric locomotive.

saber transmission line simulation

OTHER BENEFITS OF CIRCUIT SIMULATION

 

Before leaving the subject of circuit modelling it is worth consider­ing one or two spin-offs from circuit simulation. The ability to run simulations time and again can provide important statistical information with regard to performance spreads due to component tolerance, temperature and noise. All of these factors are amenable to statistical analysis and a simulation can be the ideal tool for an engineer to explore the consequences of these factors on his design.

 

Two related approaches can be adopted to produce spread effects on a simulation. The first is worst case analysis where circuit parameters at the extremes of their range can be examined to determine the effect on operation. This is a conventional application of modelling, where certain components or parameters are examined with a view to finding an optimum value. If, however, the parameter variations are statistical in nature then a Monte-Carlo analysis is more applicable to establish the spread of the designs output. A normal or cumulative graph of computed performance can be displayed against the specification to evaluate the distribution of each circuit sample in the Monte-Carlo. Hence, an overall yield for a circuit can be ascertained, as well as yield confidence limits.

 

In some instances it may be discovered that the distributions are biased causing yield reduction. If a design modification can be applied to take out the bias, the process can be repeated with the expectation of increased yield. This process is referred to as design centring. The method can be summarised as:

·                                Identifying the circuit parameters to be designed

·                                Applying tolerance and other statistical bounds

·                                Perform Monte-Carlo run and analyse

·                                Compute a design centring step (if required) and iterate

 

 

INTEGRATION METHODS

 

Later examples will consider a systems oriented approach to simulat­ing traction propulsion. However, this paper would be incomplete if mention was not made of the variety of numerical methods used to integrate sets of differential equations. These algorithms are fundamental to the solution of all time domain simulators, whether circuit or control system biased. Most traction equipment is a mixture of continuous and discrete models. Discrete sampled data by their very nature can be easily computed as algebraic equations from one step to the next. On the other hand continuous systems models, such as a motor model, require approximate numerical solutions.

 

The integration problem is really a trajectory problem based on a set of initial values. However, to represent this on a digital computer the dependent and independent differential variables, dX and dt are written as finite steps, ΔX and Δt. Hence, for a step size of Δt the continuous differential equation has been transformed into an approximate algebraic equation. As the step size gets smaller the approximation to the modelled differential equation becomes better. Thus, the digital simulation is a model of continuous differential equations, which are themselves models of the physical system. The method just described is that due to EULER, which symbolically may be written,

            Xk+1 = Xk + Δt.F(k) where F(k) is the sampled value of the general input function F(X,t).

This process is equivalent to fitting a series of rectangles under the system function curve. It should be noted the Taylor expansion for sample k+1 gives,

            Xk+1 = Xk + Δt.F(k) + Δt2F'(k)/2! + ...

and this provides a first approximation difference of Δt2F'(k)/2. This is referred to as the local truncation error. Euler's method requires a short step length for reasonable accuracy, but more importantly care must be exercised when using it because of a tendency to numerical instability with higher order ill conditioned equation sets. This instability manifests itself as the classic Nyquist form where the output variables' magnitude grows exponentially while alternating in sign each sample. However, it turns out that Euler is very good around a DSE because it is not based on any prediction,[6] so combined with its simplicity it is still a powerful method.

 

RUNGE KUTTA methods are a development of Euler, combining information from a number of steps. The purpose is to introduce higher order terms as found in the Taylor expansion. Second order Runge Kutta (or improved Euler) is a powerful way of extending simple Euler to better accuracy. In this the Euler output for the next step, X*k+1, is used as an estimate to provide a more accurate input function value:-

            Xk+1 = Xk + Δt.{F*(k+1) + F(k)}/2

The second order form can be extended to fourth by adding further auxiliary equations. Runge Kutta 4, as it is known, is numerically robust for non-stiff equation sets, although not very fast. It is a strong method for solving systems with derivative discontinuities such as piecewise linear functions.

 

Other methods employ variable step length to improve the speed of integration. Whether this is acceptable to a system simulation depends on the hierarchical nature of the problem and the type of sample rates in the dig­ital part of the system. The variable step length KUTTA MERSON is usually more accurate than Runge Kutta 4, although this may rarely be of much value as Runge Kutta 4 general­ly prov­ides more than enough accuracy. Another variable step length method is the ADAMS BASHFORTH predictor corrector. Unlike the previous techniques higher order derivatives of F(X,t) are used in a polynomial fit. It is fast, but functions are required to be differentiable several times to ensure reliable operation. This is not often the case when mod­elling power electronic systems, but the method has been ment­ioned for completeness. An idea of the relative trade-off between accuracy and speed for a second order system is shown in fig. 7. It is worth noting that if the step length is very short then all the algorithms seem to be converging to a similar accuracy.[7] However, this is misleading because the degradation of higher order methods is due to numerical quantisation effects at very high accuracy. For this reason, when very short step lengths are required to find a DSE precisely, then Euler integration can be as effective as other techniques.

 

The choice of integration algorithm is therefore highly dependent on the condition of the equations to be solved, and often in hierarchical systems more than one method may be in use at any point in time. A problem is well conditioned if cha­nges in input data cause corres­pondingly small changes in the solution. The converse is true for an ill-conditioned problem. The amplification ef­fect between input and output is sometimes referred to as the condition number. In matrix terms if we consider an output equation Y=CX, then its condi­tion number is det[C].det[C-1]. It is often possible to observe an ill-conditioned matrix by looking for a high degree of columnar linear dependency. Such observations are very im­portant when first formulat­ing a model, not only in deciding an integration algorithm, but determining the accuracy of initial conditions that represent the starting point of the integration and its ability to converge. Both problem and integration algorithm can be considered numerically stable if the end result obtained is the same (or very similar) when started from perturbed positions. If the problem is stochastic (rather than purely deterministic), as some advanced traction propulsion simulations are, then the same end mean and variance should be expected.

 

The basic rules of integration algorithm choice can be summarised as follows:

·                             Produce hierarchy diagram of model to simulate

·                             Estimate (guess) the condition of each block of your hierarchy

·                             Consider the impact of DSEs on system condition and choose step length correspondingly

·                             Determine what accuracy is required

·                             Select algorithm that gives best accuracy/computation time trade-off, taking account of CPU capability and availability as necessary

comparison of integration methods, Euler, Runge Kutta Merson, Adams-Bashforth


SYSTEM SIMULATION

 

So far this paper has addressed predominantly time domain simulation methods. If frequency information is required then the circuit can be simulated over a range of ac input frequencies to obtain frequency responses and phase plots. If it is desired to find the spectral content of a waveform then a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) may be applied. However, when dealing with system simulations, a totally frequency domain approach is feasible. This would normally be based on the concept of `steady state' solution, with signals modelled as summations of one or more harmonic series. The harmonic voltages and currents can then be injected into networks that can account for frequency dependent effects readily. For a full discussion of these methods the reader is referred to Arrillaga et al.[8] It is also possible to envisage a model from substation to vehicle speed and distance, based on a steady state approach, which could be progressed through relatively coarse time steps to determine operational effects.

 

For a traction propulsion system it is desirable to consider the effect of the railway networks interface on the behaviour of traction control. This means it is necessary to look beyond the power electronic system at the centre of the propulsion equipment, to see how it is affected by the power transmission system feeding it and the rails on which it runs. Having discussed an example of power supply modelling earlier in the paper, the wheel-rail interface is considered here.

 

The process of establishing a model for a wheel-rail adhesion characteristic is rather dif­ferent from that of electrical power systems. A characteristic is evolved by data assimilation from as many sources as poss­ible[9],[10],[11], to reduce the risk of biased data due to erroneous measurement. Examples of the type of characteristics that result are given in fig. 8. Clearly the curves are not linear, and it turns out that a combined polynomial and piece­wise linear approach is most effective. The initial steep posi­tive slope is quite linear and a straight-line representa­tion is realistic. The rest of the char­acteristic is represented by a polynomial fit of 4th to 8th or­der depending on the rail condition type. If an attempt is made to match the gradient at the origin to the starting gradient of the poly­nomial an almost seamless transition is effected.

 

This work was conducted on Brush Traction's Class 60 freight locomotive project for two major reasons. The first was the requirement to establish with confidence an axle diameter that was adequate and not over designed, but could with­stand torsional oscillations expected when the peak of the adhesion curve was reached. The second and more difficult task was to incorporate the model developed in the course of the first task into a system model that included a speed measuring radar, main alternator supply and control, and traction motors with separate field controls. The purpose of doing this was to develop a control method of keeping the wheels creeping at the peak of available adhesion when demanded tractive effort could not be achieved due to the rail conditions, loading or gradient.

 

The first task was to model the transmission, wheel and axle assembly. Initially a Continuous System Modelling Program was used to build a spring-mass-damper model of the transmission and wheelset. The spring-mass-damper is the elementary building block of a traction mechanical drive and can be easily represented in a block diagram by using Laplace operator notation (see fig. 9). J is the mass, or inertia in this instance, as rotational quantities are being con­sidered. K is the spring or shaft stiffness, and D is the damper rate. In many cases a physical damper device is not present, but this term should still be included to model the inherent damping of the bush or shaft, although in the case of a shaft D is a very small term. Fv is the viscous friction term from the bearings. If the output is driving an infinite inertia then the load positional feedback will be constant, but normally this would be derived from the next stage.

 

More complex mechanical models can be derived from combinations of spring-mass-damper blocks that bolt together easily even in a high-level language environment. The reaction torques or forces appear as feedback paths in a block diagram. In this way it is possible to model not only the transmission drive components, but also wheelset and bogie, longitudinal and vertical modes, track forces and disturbance inputs from the track such as rail joints. When this more complex mechanics model is fitted into a system simulation it becomes possible to evaluate the effect of wheel-rail forces at the motor, in the power conversion equipment, and even back at the supply.

 

Reverting to the problem of torsional oscillations, these are present to some degree in any powered wheelset once peak available adhesion has been reached. Where the wheel/rail interface characteristic slope is positive then extra damping proportional to the slope is introduced to the wheelset angular motion. When this damping term is not present, or if it is only present in a small measure on one of the two wheels, then axle torsional oscillations may propagate. A simplified dynamic model of a wheel­set is shown in fig. 10. It consists of two polar inertias, joined by a torsional spring representing the axle. A third inertia is then joined to the system by means of a transmission gearing and another torsional spring. This represents the effect of the motor armature inertia, motor shaft and gearbox. The input torque applied to the motor shaft is the electromagnetic torque from the motor. The system has two unstable torsional modes:

 

·        A single node on the axle shaft section, with the outer inertias (armature and left wheel) oscillating in anti-phase.

·        Two nodes, one on each shaft section, with the outer inertias oscillating in phase.

 

The simulation shows the build up of torsional oscillations with both frequencies clearly visible on PU creep, the lower graph of fig. 11. With this relatively simple system it was possible to find the character­istic equation from det[sI-A]=0, and then find its zeros. Matrix A is the sys­tem or plant matrix, and [sI-A]-1 is known as the frequency domain form of the transition matrix. The roots of s in the characteristic equation are the sys­tem poles, or eigenvalues of matrix A. The related vectors obtained by substituting the roots into [sI-A]=[0] are known as the eigenvectors. Two pairs of positive complex conjugate roots were found, where the modulus of the imaginary compo­nent yields the frequencies of oscillation as 53 and 108Hz. Thus, the time domain simulation frequencies were confirmed. The results at 30% full speed and 5% creepage show build up over a 1 second period, whereupon the amplitude is limited because the oscillation is trying to extend to the positive slope region, a well damped section of the adhesion characteristic. This phenomenon provides enough positive damping to balance the negative damping which triggers the oscilla­tions, and hence gives rise to a bounded instability, of 10% pu creep peak to peak in this case. It would be exceedingly difficult to predict this theoretically because the limiting amplitude is highly dependent on the non-linearity of the wheel/rail interface curve, but simulation provides the answer once again. The maximum principal stress level is arrived at by considering the worst case bending stresses in the axle due to loading (this produces the dominant 4Hz component in the top graph of fig. 11), and combining this with the shear stress component due to the torsional oscillation. It can be observed from the graph that the torsionals only increase the peak stress level by 20% in this instance, but this is highly dependent on the dimensions of the axle as well as loading conditions.


axle torsional oscillations
For the second part of the class 60 modelling exercise Cecube was commissioned to build a full system model of the locomotive with the purpose of designing an effective peak tracking adhesion control scheme when the locomotive was creeping. The system comprised of six parallel DC armatures with individual field control, a diesel engine driving a rectified alternator supply, the axle hung drive system discussed above with axle speed probes, and a Doppler radar to measure loco speed independently. A schematic diagram of the control system is given in fig. 12. Since the system is comprised of many quite complex subsystems a hierarchical approach was adopted to generating the simulation. This involved writing a code block for each component of the system, debugging and testing it in isolation before attempting to assemble it into the full system simulation. The process of combining several components into a system model gives rise to two immediate problems:

 

·        What method of connection or interfacing is appropriate?

·        How to handle the convergence difficulties that may result in a high order system?

 

The simplest interface is via a global or common variable that is updated with a short step length. If the whole of the simulation can be run with a short step length, this presents no problems. Alterna­tively, it may be possible to separate out the interface variables from the state variables that derive them from inter-sample interpola­tion, which results in a multi-rate sampling simulation. With sampled data it is straightforward to output a variable to another component of the simulation, without making any assumptions about the piecewise linear nature of the data. This is particularly applicable when modelling control algorithms that include relatively slow real time sample periods. When inputting data to a sampled data module, such as a current or voltage measurement, a little more care is required to ensure that the sampled data measurements have the correct age. In many control systems a data measurement may be used more than once during a sampling period, so the data will be older on the later occasions. A simulation must endeavour to use data sampled at the correct point in time, and not simply the most recently computed value, which would not be available in real time.

 

Another means of subsystem connectivity is the method of tear, also referred to as diakoptics,[12] which is applicable to electrical network problems. Here each component subsystem drives a voltage source representing the loading network. The loading network is fed from a separate voltage source representing the driving network. The two subsystems are connected together by an additional block referred to as the link network. This comprises a current source driving an inductance (see fig. 13). The current source represents the difference between the output current of the driving network and the input current of the loading network. By calculating the mesh equa­tions of the torn networks and the connectivity equation of the link network, a general solution is found for the ac­tual current flowing between the torn networks. This is achieved by taking the limit of the link network, so the cur­rent source tends to zero and the inductance tends to infinity. Because these values do not have to be explicitly computed in the simulation this does not present a problem. Having obtained a value for the actual current flowing between the networks this can be used as output/input data to the respective subsystem networks, which continue to be computed separately.

 

Although a system simulation is usually of very high total order (for instance the example in fig. 12 is over one hundred), if properly broken down into hierarchical subsystems each component should be quite convergent in its own right. By restricting the connectivity between layers of a hierarchy at the start of the simulation run, it is possible to get the lowest level converged locally before interfacing it to the layer above. This makes for a most effective way of progressive convergence of system simulations. Normally, this produces convergence over a relatively short period of simulated time, typically less than half a second. On the rare occasions when convergence is very slow or represents a substantial proportion of the overall run time it may be possible to improve matters by relaxing the integration accuracy or by increasing the step length. The ability to achieve this will depend on the conditioning of the equations, which will vary from case to case.

 

The creep control simulation included geometric functions to account for the movement of radar, both longitudinal and pitching, due to motion of the vehicle relative to the axles. To produce a realistic simulation of adhesion it was found necessary to build a stochastic model of the wheel/rail interface as a function of loco speed. This again was performed by assimilating data, this time from Class 60 test measurements on low adhesion track conditions. As a result the simulation was made both accurate and representative of typical conditions. Using this base a novel creep control algorithm was developed to maintain operation at or very close to the adhesion curve peak when required, even under dynamic conditions of changing adhesion levels.


diakoptic method

SYSTEM EQUATIONS

 

To model any subsystem of a simulation it is first necessary to write down equations that describe the subsystem. These can be categorised as follows:

 

I.                     Sets of related differential equations

II.                   Algebraic or transcendental equations

III.                  Polynomial functions

IV.               System constraints and limits

 

Conventionally state space methods are employed to describe the differential elements. In state space the system is characterised by a set of first order differential equations made up of `state' variables. System analysis and design is accomplished by solving a set of first order equations, rather than a single higher order equation. Consequently, the states need not be accessible, observable, or even have a physical realisation. This approach often simplifies a problem, particularly if the system is linear, and has several advantages when using a digital computer for solution.

 

In the case of linear systems the equations can be expressed in matrix form,

X´ = AX + BU

Y = CX + DU

where U is the input vector, B and D are input or driving matrices, A is the system matrix discussed earlier, and C is the output matrix relating the states to the output vector of interest. Consider the example of a pair of second order systems represented in analogue form by state variable diagrams in fig. 14. In both examples the D matrix is null, as is often the case in practice. In the top example the state equations can be written down by inspection,

                         .

x1= a1.x1 + x2                                        ...1

                         .

x2 = a2.x2 + u                                         ...2

 

From this, the state space form becomes,

state space equations

By substituting for x2 in equation 2 from equation 1 the system equations are derived.

Hence,

                        ..                 .

x1 - (a1+a2)x1 + a1a2.x1 = u               

and after substituting for the output variable, y, this gives the characteristic equation

                        ..                 .

y1 - (a1+a2)y1 + a1a2.y1 = 0    

 

Now consider the bottom second order system in fig. 14. The state equations are independent, and can again be written down by inspection,

 .

x1 = s1.x1 + u                                       ...3

 .

x2 = s2.x2 + u                                       ...4

 

The state space form is,

state space solution

The output matrix coefficients are,

c1 = -c2 = 1/(s1-s2)

by definition for this particular system.

However, the solution to the two independent state equations, 3 and 4, by Laplace Transform is trivial, and can be written as,

  (s - s1).x1 = (s - s2).x2 = u

Hence,           y = __1___ . {__u__  _  __u__}  

                             s1 – s2      s – s1        s – s2 

                        = u / {s2-(s1+s2)s+s1s2}

By applying an inverse Laplace Transform the time domain solution is determined as,

                        ..               .

y - (s1+s2)y + s1s2.y = 0         

Notice by choosing s1=a1 and s2=a2, the systems are identical.

 

The separation, or independence, of the state variables in the latter case is a useful technique because it creates a diagonal system matrix. This diagonal variation is known as the canonical form. As has been seen it yields the system roots or modes very easily. Although with these simple second order systems the canonical form offers little advantage, when higher order systems are considered the canonical form can be easier and quicker to integrate. To effect a canonical transform on a set of system equations a generalised approach is necessary to create a new set of state variables. The derivation and use of this transform method can be found in several reference texts. [13],[14]

 

 

FURTHER EXAMPLES OF SYSTEM SIMULATIONS

 

From the preceding section it is apparent that tools for handling and manipulating matrices could be beneficial to simulation design. One possibility is that the designer might develop bespoke high-level language tools, in C or FORTRAN, specifically for an application. This is the approach to system simulation considered thus far. The disadvantage is that the designer requires a fair degree of programming skill, and the importance of validation is increased because the simulation is subject to the possibility of both modelling and programming mistakes. Furthermore, packages or suites of software cannot be developed rapidly from scratch.

 

An alternative approach is to design simulations in a general purpose computer environment that operates at a level higher than a programming language, and is able to perform the required matrix operations explicitly. MATLAB (MATrix LABoratory) is such a tool. It was originally written in FORTRAN for mainframe computers in the late 1970's, and makes use of a kernel of LINPACK[15] and EISPACK,[16] developed at Stanford University. MATLAB is an interactive system whose main data type is an automatically dimensioned matrix. Problem solutions are expressed in a manner similar to written mathematics. In academia it is a standard educational and research tool, and has gained ground throughout industry. MATLAB is particularly strong in the areas of control theory and digital signal processing, although toolbox expansions allow it to be applied to various disciplines. Now written entirely in C, versions of MATLAB exist for all common place computer systems, including IBM PC's, Macintosh and SUN workstations, and includes non-linear analysis, programmable macros, full IEEE floating point arithmetic, and sophisticated post-processing graphics for data examination.

 

The best way to gain an impres­sion of its capabilities is to view the range of commands available in MATLAB. Other fully integrated environments have become available over time. Most importantly these all have a graphical user interface allowing the system being simulated to be drawn on a computer screen schematic, making visualisation and edit­ing of subsystem inter­connections much easier. Such environments operate either by interpreting the source or by a compiled mode if execution time is long. Other features provide for hierarchical modelling with user code blocks, the gener­ation of algorithm code for real-time applica­tions, and the production of model paradigms from knowledge bases. What the matrix based packages are less good at is circuit simulation, because they have evolved from a systems based mentality, rather than net­work theory.

 

schematic capture of DC motor model

An example of this type of graphical user interface and block modelling is shown in fig. 15. This particular model is that of a DC motor, which could be part of a system hierarchy model. It has armature voltage input at label 3 (left side block), and two other inputs of field voltage (labelled 1 on right side) and speed (labelled 2). The single output in this case is the motor electro­magnetic torque. The model includes armature and field absolute current limits, flux multiplication blocks, and alge­braic or polynomial functions to model armature reaction, flux hysteresis and field saturation. By making use of non-linear components a motor model suitable for control be­haviour analysis under any operational condi­tions has been formed.

 

This motor model was used in a chopper fed system simulation to predict harmonic current level in the supply. The requirement was to keep current in the frequency range 360Hz and 430Hz to below 50mA. The blend­ing of regenerative and rheos­tatic brake was considered a potential hazard as this could introduce frequencies that were not just integer multiples of the chopping frequency, and some of these may fall in the signalling bands. By carefully controlling the source impedance the model was operated in a mode where the drive would repeatedly switch between rege­nerative and rheostatic. One solution might have been to force the drive to remain in a mode for a minimum period, say 0.5s, so that resulting 1Hz cycling would not cause inter­ference. However, this would give less accurate control, may even effect passenger comfort, and most importantly could result in electric brake being switched off because rheostatic brake was required during low receptivity, but was not available because of the mode minimum time. A far better solution is chopper cycle by cycle blending provided it cannot cause interference.

 

The simulation was able to demonstrate that under all feasible conditions of receptivity the signalling levels were not exceeded. Some of these conditions could not be easily arranged on a railway, so measurement in all cases was not possible. The simulation effectively provided answers for these instances. Needless to say validation of the model to the satisfaction of the railway operator was imperative for this purpose. This was achieved by comparison of measurement and simulation in as many modes of operation as practical over a considerable period of time.

 

 

GETTING STARTED

 

Not surprisingly the sophisticated integrated simulation environments discussed in the last section are relatively expensive. Assuming such tools are not available and you do not have the programming experience, the time, or perhaps the software to write your own simulations, there is a way of modelling some problems. It just requires a modest specification PC and a standard spread­sheet package, as used prolifically for data recording, business graphics and accounting.

 

A spreadsheet can perform arithmetic and simple functional operations on rows and columns, or on individual elements. Thus it provides a convenient way with relatively easy syntax to perform the type of operations fundamental to all methods of simulation discussed in this paper. The ease of the graphical user interface and the high quality graphical output make spreadsheets an ideal introduction for the novice. A number of authors have previously written papers on this subject[17],[18] and the Open University[19] successfully introduced spreadsheets as a means of teaching both subject matter and modelling simultaneously.

 

Finally, activity continues to abound in the academic environment of simula­tion theory and language. One area of research that has influenced railway systems simulation development in the last few years is behavioural modelling and object oriented structures. Research into and applications of a universal modelling language[20] (UML) offer a cross-discipline specification for modelling processes. The emphasis is on declarative rather than FORTRAN like procedural forms. The effect should be to create reusable software equally suited to various engineering tasks by merely defining an instance of a particular object. Benefits should include the speeding up of both simulation development and execution.

 


BIBLIOGRAPHY

  



1                  The Continuous System Simulation Language(CSSL), J.C. Strass, Simulation, Dec 1967, 281-303.

2                  System Simulation - Programming Styles and Languages, W. Kreutzer, Addison-Wesley, 1986.

3                  Electrical Variable-Speed Drives, B.L. Jones and J.E. Brown, 1984, Proc. IEE vol 131 Pt A.

4                  A General Approach to Sampled Data Modelling for Power Converter Systems, G.C. Verghese, M.E. Elbuluk and J.G. Kassakian, IEEE Trans PE-1, 1986.

5                  A Computer Program to Simulate Semiconductor Circuits, L Nagel, Memorandum No. M520, University of California, 1975.

6                  Simulation of State-Events in Power Electronic Devices, P.P.J. van den Bosch and H.R. Visser, IEE, Conf. Pub. 324, 1990.

7                  System Modelling and Computer Simulation, N.A. Kheir, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 1988.

8                  Power System Harmonics, J. Arrillaga, D.A. Bradley and P.S. Bodger, John Wiley and Sons, London, 1985.

9                  Adhesion/Slip Characteristics in Traction, D.S. Armstrong, BR Research Technical Memorandum TM TBC015, Dec 1988.

10                Locomotive Friction - Creep Studies, C.F. Logston Jr and G.S. Itami, ASME Paper No. 80-RT-1, 1980.

11                Dutch Railways Three Phase Electric Traction Test Vehicle -Adhesion Measurements, Electrische Bahnen, 329-338, 1979.

12                Diakoptics and Networks, H.H. Happ, Academic Press, London, 1971.

13                Canonical forms for Linear Multivariable Systems, D.G. Luen­berger, IEEE Trans, AC-12, 1967.

14                Principles of Automatic Control, M. Healey, English Universities Press Ltd, 1975.

15                LINPACK Users' Guide, J.J. Dongarra, C.B. Moller, J.R. Brunch and G.W. Stewart, SIAM, 1979.

16                Matrix Eigensystem Routines - EISPACK Guide, B.T. Smith, J.M. Boyle, J.J. Dongarra, B.S. Garbow, Y. Ikebe, V.C. Klema and C.B. Moller, Springler-Verlag, 1976.

17                Electrical Engineering Applications of Microcomputer Spreadsheet Analysis Programs, L.R. Huelsman, IEEE Trans, E-27, 1984.

18                Spreadsheet Solution of Partial Differential Equations, M. Hagler, IEEE Trans, E-30, 1987.

19                Modelling Applications of Spreadsheets, C. Bissell and D. Chapman, IEE Review, Jul/Aug 1989.

20                Towards a Universal Modelling Language, S.E. Mattsson and M. Andersson (Lund Institute of Technology), IEE colloquium, digest no. 196, 1991.

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